Carbohydrates contain the following elements; Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O)
- Structure: Carbohydrates consist of simple sugars. General Formula: (CH2O)n , The ration of these elements is generally 1:2:1.
|Types of carbohydrate||Reducing sugars||Soluble in water||Example|
|Monosaccharides (1 sugar unit)||Yes||Yes||Glucose C6H12O6(fruit e.g. grapes), fructose (honey, sweet fruits)|
|Dissacharides (2 sugar units joined together)||Some dissacharides e.g. maltose, lactose (but not sucrose)||Yes||Sucrose (table sugar) lactose (milk), maltose (germinating seeds)|
|Polysaccharides||No||No||Starch (bread, pasta, potatoes), cellulose (vegetables, wholemeal bread), glycog|
- Role of carbohydrates in cell structure and metabolism:
- Cell structure: Cellulose forms the structure for plant cell walls, whilst Chitin forms the structure for fungi cell walls and exoskeleton of insects.
Catabolic reactions e.g. respiration
C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy
Anabolic reactions e.g. photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6 H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Energy storage: carbohydrates are stored in plants as starch & in animals (muscles and liver) as glycogen
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